World Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology - Aims & Instructions for Authors

Aims & Instructions for Authors

Submission of a paper will be held to imply that it contains unpublished original material and that it is not being considered for publication elsewhere The submitting author must ensure that all other named authors have seen and approved the manuscnpt before submission. English spellings must be used throughout. Authors whose first language is not English are
urged to have their manuscript very carefully checked before submission.

Authors may find it helpful to consult a recent issue of the journal before preparing their manuscript. Papers which are incorrectly prepared will be returned to the author without evaluation.
Authors are urged to read the following sections very carefully before submission of a manuscript. Editors will not carry out extensive re-writing of a carelessly prepared manuscript.

Five types of manuscript maybe submitted:

Full-length Papers
These should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should he the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly. The paper should comprise the following sections:

(a) Summary; (b) Introduction; (C) Materials and Methods; (d) Results; (e) Discussion; f) Acknowledgements; (g) References; (h) Tables; (i) Legends to Figures; (j) Figures. The results and discussion sections may be combined.

Short Communications
A Short Communication is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new methods techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are two printed pages in length. Progress reports are not acceptable.

Short Notes
Short Notes are one printedl page in length. They are suitable for reports of simple findings such as the properties of an already well-described enzyme or of observations not requiring elaboration. They should he written with a short (40-word) Summary, no main sub-divisions, may contain one table or figure, or two if the text is brief, and no more than three references.

Technical Communications
These are reports of processes or procedures which may be publishcd as an annexe to a full-length paper or on their own provided that the work described is of sufficient interest to other workers in the field.

Review Papers

These should be submitted only after consultation with the Editor.

They will be limited to no more than 9 printed pages.

Preparation of Manuscripts
Three copies (top copy + 2) of each manuscript must be submittcd. The papermustbe typtd withdouble spacing throughout including references, tables, footnotes, figure legends, etc~, on A4 size paper leaving margins of 25 cm minimum Low-quality dot matrix printers must not be used.

For general style and layout of tables, figures, etc., intending authors should consult a current issue of the journal. The first page must give: title of paper, names and addresses of authors; a short title of not more than 40 characters and spaces for running heads; name, postal address, telephone, fax numbers and E-mail (Internet) address (if available) of the author designated to receive proofs and correspondence; and an alphabetical list of key words relevant to the contents of the paper.
The second page should be the Summary, plus title. The paper will then begin on the third page.

Key Words
Authors should supply, on the title page, between three and six key words that will be used in indexing their paper.

The Summary should be approximately 5% of the length of the paper. For a Short Communication, about four or five lines are recommended. Authors should write the Summary as concisely as possible conveying the essential information of the paper. As abstracting services often use summaries without change, authors must ensure comprehension in its own right. References are not to be cited. Abbreviations, if used must be, defined.

This should state objectives of the work set against a background of existing and relevant informition. A detailed summary of the results of work is not needed.

Materials and Methods
Sufficient detail should be provided to enable others to repeat the work. Exact descriptions of protocols are not needed when standard procedures are being used. Trivial details (culture maintenance, plating techniques, standard procedures of growth, analysis, etc.) are not to be given. Sub-headings are used to itmeize the main parts. Suppliers of chemicals and equipment need only be given if this is essential for the success of the work. Supplier's addresses are not needded except where this is judged to he essential. The Lowry Bradford and other standard procedures do not need a reference. Solidi should be used in the names of buffers and media such as Tris/HCI and potato/dextrose/agar.

Results and Discussion
These sections may be separated though authors may find it easier to combine them. Results must give those details which are essential for the advancement of knowledge. Preliminary work, experimental failures or results of little consequence are not to be given. When results are given in tables and figures, it is unnecessary for these results to be desribed In detail within the text. The reproducibility of the findings must be clearly stated. the number of times the experiment was conducted, the number of replicate samples, etc., should be stated. Statistical analysis of results must speeciify the procedure being used with a reference being given. If results are given as a percentage of a control value, the 100% value should be given. Discussion should bring out those essential points of the work that the author considers others will need to know. lt should not repeat or re-describe the results of the paper.

Refenrnces in the text are cited as: Black & White (1991) or (Black & White 1992). A series of references in the text should appear in chronological order, e.g. White & Black 1991; Black & White 1992. References having three or more authors are cited Black et al (1992). References to papers by the same authors in the same year are distinguished by letters a, b, etc. (e.g. 1989a, or 1991a,b). Publications having no obvious authors are cited as Anon. (1990) in the text and bibliography. At the end of the paper references are listed alphabetically. References with three or more authors should be placed in chronological order after taking account of the names of the first and second authors. The author must ensure that references cited in the text agree with those listed in the bibliography. Some sample reference styles follow.

In journals:
Saha, B.C. & Zeikus, J. G. 1989 Improved method for preparing high maltose convension syrups. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 34, 299-303.

In books
Primrose, S.B 1987 Modern Biotechnology. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific.
Guilbot, A. & Mercier, C. 1985 Starch. In The Polysaccharides, ed Aspinall, G.O. pp. 209-282. New York. Academic Press.

Conference proceedings should be cited as books only if they possess an ISBN or ISSN.

Papers that are accepted for publication may be cited as 'in press' two copies of such papers should accompany the submitted manuscnpt. References to papers submitted but not yet accepted should be cited as unpublished work giving names and initials of the cited pcrson and the date and location of the communication. Personal communications being cited must have the permission of the cited person and must give the date and location of the communication.

Tables should only be used for data which cannot be described in the text. Authors should carefulN seledthudata thatare typical of the results they have obtained; they should not attempt to present all the data that they may have obtmned Tables should be comprehensible without reference to the tcxt and should be supplied with an informative heading and appropriate legends and footnotes. Each table must be double-space typed without vertical ruled lines on a separate sheet and its appropriate position in the text indicated by a marginal note. Authors should not quote data to values beyond the inherent limits of the accuracy of their expenments. If results are given as percentages then the 100% absolute value must be quoted. The reproducibility of the results should be indicated. Tables are numbered with arabic numerals. Tables will be usually printed at single column (85 cm) width and should be laid out to meet this requirement.

Figures should be selected to illustrate points which cannot be easily made in the text. They are numbered with arabic numerals. Graphs and diagrams should he on separate sheets each bearing the authors names, short title of paper and figure number on the back. Diagrams must be drawn and lettered in black ink on good quality white paper or acctate to a professional standard for camera-ready use. Lettering should be parallel to the axes. Photocopies, hand-drawn diagrams and typewritten labels are not acceptable Authors must ensure that all details on their figures will remain legible when the figures are reduced to fit the printed page. Most illustrations will be reduced to a single column width (approx. 8.5cm); originals that are drawn larger than this should have proportionaljy larger lettering. Computer-drawn figures are not acceptable unless to a very high quality (usually with laser printing) The same symbols should be used for the same quantity in all figures. Scale marks on graphs should be within the axes. Graphs should avoid as far as possible large areas of unused space.

Photographs should be well-contrasted black and white prints, unmounted and suitable forreprodudionat8.5cm (singlecolumn) width or in some cases 17 cm (full page) width For photo micrographs, the magnification should be given by a scale (or marker) baron each photograph and the length this represents given in the legend Non-essential parts of photographs must be cut off where a group of photomicrographs are submitted these should be laid out by the author to fit the printed page (17x 22-5 cm) including space for the full legerd Photographs of chrom atograms are not usually printed. Photographs of gels, etc,. where the contrast is poor are better replaced by line drawings, but photographs of the original maternal should be submitted for the reviewers scrutiny. Colour photographs can be printed, but only at the authors' expense. Authors wishing to use this facility should inquire beforehand to the Editor-in-Chief or to the publishers Black and white printing from colour photographs is not recommended as the contrast is usually too poor.
Legends for figures should be grouped togetherand typed with double-spacing on a separate page and not attached to the artwork.

Units, Abbreviations and Nomenclature
Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors may use eithersuperscript presentations (mgmf')or the solidus presentation (mg/mI). Whatever style is used this must be consistent throughout the paper. (Authors should use therefore rev/minor and not rpm). Chemical and biochemical nomenclature should follow the lUPAC-lLfl commission guidelines; appropriate guidelines are given in, for example, Policy of the Journal and Instructions to Authors, The Biochemical Society, 59 Portland Place, London W1N 3AJ, UK. Fax: (+44) 1)71 323 1136, and references therein The Enzyme Commission (FC) number t>r enzymes should be given at the first time of mention; see Enzyme Nomenclature (1992), Academic Press; London London & New York. Microorganisms must be correctly named using the current codes for bacteria, yeasts, fungi,algae and protozoa; (see Micrnbiliogy 1996,142 (January),pp. v-x. Guidelines for genetic nomenclature are quoted in the same publication. Please consult Tables 1 and 2 for further information on units, abbreviations and conventions.
When giving the concentration of a solution in a solvent the correct desaiphon is, for example, lOg glucose/1OO ml, not10g/100ml glucose. The term % used to express a concentration must be used correctly, e.g. per 100g solution; otherwise % (v/v) or %(w/v) should be used for solutions of concentration greater than 1%. For Solvent mixtures use, for example, butan-1-ol/acetic acid/water (4:1:1 by vol.) or chloroform/methanol (2:1,v/v).

Materials copied from other sources must be accompanied by a written statement from both author and publisher giving permiission to theWorld Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology for reproduction. It is the submitting author's responsibility to ensure such permissions are obtained.

Proofs and Offprints
Authors will be sent page prook for correction by fax wherever possible. When the schedule allows, proofs wilibe posted to authors without fax facilities ln either case,authors must inform the Publisher of any corrections within 48 hours lf they fail to do so, proof-reading will be arranged by the Publisher.
A form for ordering offprints will be sent to authors along with the proofs.

Acceptance of a paper will imply assignment of copyright by its author(s) to the Publisher, but authors will be free to use their material in subsequent publications written or edited by themselves provided that acknowledgement is made of World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology as the original place of publication.

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