Journal of Hypertension

Note: These instructions comply with those formulated by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. For further details, authors should consult their article: Uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals. N Engl J Med 1991, 324:424–428.

Scope
The Journal of Hypertension publishes papers reporting original clinical and experimental research which are of a high standard and which contribute to the advancement of knowledge in the field of hypertension. The Journal publishes full papers and reviews or editorials (normally by invitation). Manuscripts submitted to Journal of Hypertension will be accepted on the understanding that the author must not have previously submitted the paper to another journal or have published the material elsewhere. Authors who submit papers to the Journal must document that all persons acknowledged have seen and approved the mention of their name in the paper.

Manuscripts
Manuscripts should be sent to:  Professor Alberto Zanchetti,  Editor, Journal of Hypertension, Centro di Fisiologia Clinica e Ipertensione, University of Milan, Ospedale Maggiore, Via F. Sforza 35, 20122 Milan, Italy. Submissions should consist of four copies, three of which may be photocopies. Authors must also supply three copies of all figures and tables. Manuscripts should be typed on white bond paper. Margins should be not less than 3 cm. Double spacing should be used throughout the manuscript including the following sections, each of which should begin on a separate sheet: title page, summary and keywords, text, acknowledgements, references, individual tables and captions. Pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the title page. Abbreviations, if used, should be defined on their first appearance in the text and those not accepted by international bodies should be avoided.

Special Reports
Special Reports should be short descriptions of recent findings on topics of current importance. Papers submitted as Special Reports will receive a decision from the Editor within 2 weeks. No written comments or opportunity for revision will be provided, and accepted papers will be published in the next issue to press. Papers adjudged unacceptable for publication in their present form may be resubmitted for full peer review.

Special Reports should consist of no more than 2000 words, have 20 or fewer references and contain no more than two figures or tables. Authors wishing for their paper to be considered for this category should indicate so in their letter of submission.

Summaries of papers with large amounts of information
It is impractical to publish very large amounts of data (e.g. from technical reports, phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials, new study protocols, etc.) in the Journal. In these cases the Editor may ask that only a shortened version of the paper be published in the Journal. The author should state in this paper where the full data are available, and may request Rapid Science Ltd to hold the data in electronic format, for which a small charge will be made. There will, of course, be no charge for the publication of the summary in the Journal.

Presentation of papers
All original papers must be arranged in sections under the headings and in the order indicated below:

Title page
The title page should carry the

  • full title of the paper, consisting of no more than 20 words (only common abbreviations should be used if absolutely necessary); titles should be clear and brief, conveying the message of the paper
  • a brief short title, which will be used as running head (consisting of not more than 40 characters, including spaces)
  • all authors’ names: the full first name, middle initial and last name of each author should appear; if the work is to be attributed to a department or institution, its full name and location should be included. Persons listed as authors should be those who substantially contributed to the study’s conception, design, and performance
  • the affiliations of all the authors; when authors are affiliated to more than one institution, their names should be connected using a , b , c , etc. These letters should follow the surname but precede the address; they should be used for all addresses
  • information about previous presentations of the whole or part of the work presented in the article
  • the sources of any support, for all authors, for the work in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or any combination of these
  • a statement on potential conflicts of interest: if authors have financial interests relevant to the research or constituting a conflict of interest, these must be stated. If not applicable, state NONE
  • disclaimers, if any
  • the name and address of the author responsible for correspondence concerning the manuscript, and the name and address of the author to whom requests for reprints should be made. If reprints are not to be made available, a statement to this effect should be included. The peer-review process as well as publication will be delayed if you do not provide up to date telephone and fax numbers, and E-mail address, if available
  • wordcount: please list full wordcount (including references)

Structured abstract
The second page should carry an abstract not exceeding 250 words. Please list abstract wordcount at the end of the abstract.

(a) Articles containing original data concerning the course, cause, diagnosis, treatment, prevention or economic analysis of a clinical disorder or an intervention to improve the quality of health care should include a structured abstract with the following headings and information:
Objective: State the main question or objective of the study and the major hypothesis tested, if any.
Design: Describe the design of the study indicating, as appropriate, use of randomization, blinding, criterion standards for diagnostic tests, temporal direction (retrospective or prospective), etc.
Setting: Indicate the study setting, including the level of clinical care (for example, primary or tertiary; private practice or institutional).
Patients, participants: State selection procedures, entry criteria and numbers of participants entering and finishing the study.
Interventions: Describe the essential features of any interventions including their method and duration of administration.
Main outcome measure(s): The primary study outcome measures should be indicated as planned before data collection began. If the hypothesis being reported was formulated during or after data collection, this fact should be clearly stated.
Results: Describe measurements that are not evident from the nature of the main results and indicate any blinding. Absolute values should be indicated when risk changes or effect sizes are given.
Conclusions: State only those conclusions of the study that are directly supported by data, along with their clinical application (avoiding overgeneralization). Equal emphasis must be given to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit.

(b) Articles concerning original experimental research should include a structured abstract with the following headings and information:
Objective(s): State the primary objective of the paper (if appropriate).
Design: State the principal reasoning for the procedures adopted.
Methods: State the procedures used. Results: State the main results of the study. Numerical data may be included but should be kept to a minimum.
Conclusions:
State the conclusions that can be drawn from the data given.

(c) Review articles should include an abstract which, if appropriate, may be structured with the following headings: Purpose, data identification, study selection, data extraction, results of data analysis, conclusions.

Keywords
The abstract should be followed by a list of 3–10 keywords or short phrases which will assist the cross-indexing of the article and which will be published. When possible, the terms used should be from the Medical Subject Headings list of the Index Medicus.

Text
Full papers of an experimental or observational nature may be usefully divided into sections headed Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion, although reviews may require a different format.

Abbreviations
Use of abbreviations should be kept to an absolute minimum; abbreviations and abbreviated phrases should be written out at first mention followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Avoid those not accepted by international bodies. Use generic names of drugs. When a specific product or item of equipment is first mentioned, give the manufacturer’s name and the place of manufacture (city, state, country) in parentheses. Système Internationale (SI) units should be used where appropriate.

Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements should be made only to those who have made a substantial contribution to the study. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from people acknowledged by name in case readers infer their endorsement of data and conclusions.

References
Text citation
References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they first appear in the text. They should be assigned arabic numerals which should be given in brackets, e.g. [17], not superscript. Cite the reference number immediately after the author’s name in the text (e.g. Smith et al. [17] studied 40 patients not Smith et al. studied 40 patients [17]). Any cited in figures and tables should be numbered according to the position in which the figure or table is first cited in the text.

Reference list
References should include the names of all authors when six or fewer; when seven or more, list only the first six names and add et al. References should also include full title and source information. Journal names should be abbreviated as in the Index Medicus.

Example I (journal): Peterson HR, Rothschild M, Weinberg CR, Fell RD, McLeish KR, Pfeifer MA. Body fat and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. N Engl J Med 1988; 318:1077–1083.
Example II (book): Folkow B. Autonomic nervous system in hypertension. In: Swales JD (editor): Textbook of Hypertension. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific; 1994, pp. 427–438.

Personal communications and unpublished work should not feature in the reference list but should appear in parentheses in the text. Unpublished work accepted for publication but not yet released should be included in the reference list with the words ‘in press’ in parentheses beside the name of the journal concerned. References must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents.

Tables
Each table should be typed on a separate sheet in double spacing. Tables should not be submitted as photographs. Each table MUST have a title and should be assigned an arabic numeral, e.g. (Table 3). Vertical rules should not be used. Tables should not duplicate the content of the text. Each table should consist of at least two columns.

Table headings
If applicable, table headings should indicate whether the figures used represent percentages, by (%) after the figure, or units. Columns should always have headings.

Table footnotes
Information should be listed in the following order:

  • abbreviations and symbols should be defined in the order in which they appear in the table (reading across each line rather than down columns); spell out ALL abbreviations and symbols used in the table, even if they have already been listed in previous tables or the text itself – when giving a key, use a comma rather than =, e.g. H, hypertensive NOT H=hypertensive
  • any additional comments should follow the explanation of abbreviations and symbols
  • keys to the P values should be listed in the following order (note the use of asterisks for probability): *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001; asterisks are the only symbols that should be used with P values; DO NOT use @ or #.

Checklist for data in tables

  • the data are consistent with those cited in the relevant parts in the text
  • totals add up correctly
  • percentages have been calculated correctly

Illustrations
Please see the following page.

Permissions
If a table or figure have been published before, the authors must obtain written permission from the copyright holder, which should be submitted with the material. The request for permission must clearly state that the material will appear in both print and electronic formats (including Internet and CD-ROM). Publication of accepted manuscripts whose authors have not obtained such permission will be delayed.

Units: the Système Internationale (SI)
The Journal of Hypertension employs SI Units (see Quantities, Units, and Symbols, 2nd edn. London: The Royal Society of Medicine; 1975). All submitted papers should use this system, which should be departed from only where long-established clinical usage demands it (e.g. the measurement of blood pressure in mmHg). Where helpful, other units of measurement may be included in parentheses. Whenever possible, renin should be expressed in terms of the International Standard Renin Unit [Bangham et al.: Clin Sci 1975, 48 (suppl):135s–159s]. Derived SI units may also be used, and for basic and derived units prefixes to denote multiples and submultiples may be used.

Nomenclature for experimental renovascular hypertension
Contributors should follow the Special Report of the Nomenclature Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research of the American Heart Association (Page IH, Oparil S, Bohr DF, Tobian L: Nomenclature for experimental renovascular hypertension. Hypertension 1979, 1:61):

Goldblatt hypertension: One-kidney, one clip hypertension; two-kidney, one clip hypertension; two-kidney, two clip hypertension.
Page hypertension: One-kidney, one wrapped hypertension; two-kidney, one wrapped hypertension; two-kidney, two wrapped hypertension.
Grollman hypertension:
One-kidney, one figure-8 hypertension; two-kidney, one figure-8 hypertension; two-kidney, two figure-8 hypertension.

Nomenclature for hypertensive rat strains
Contributors should follow the nomenclature accepted at the Eleventh Meeting of the International Society of Hypertension in Heidelberg, West Germany, 1986 (Hypertension 1987, 9:110).

Nomenclature for the renin–angiotensin system and animal peptides
Contributors should follow the Report of the Joint Nomenclature and Standardization Committee of the International Society of Hypertension, the American Heart Association and the World Health Organization (J Hypertens 1987, 5:507–511).

Offprints
Offprints may be purchased at terms to be made available with proofs. Orders should be sent when the proofs are returned; orders received after this time cannot be fulfilled. Editorial communications should be addressed to: The Publishing Editor, Journal of Hypertension, Rapid Science Ltd, 2–6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK (Tel: 0171 865 0198; Fax: 0171 928 0748).

Business communications
Business communications (subscriptions, advertising, etc.) should be addressed to: The Publishing Editor, Journal of Hypertension, Rapid Science Ltd, 2–6 Boundary Row, London SE1 8HN, UK (Tel: 0171 865 0198; Fax: 0171 928 0748).

Illustrations
Sizes and presentation
Figures should be professionally drawn and photographed; freehand or typewritten lettering is unacceptable. Artwork should be submitted either as glossy prints or as high-quality laser prints; dot-matrix printers do not produce artwork suitable for publication. Line illustrations should be submitted as original artwork or prints to a width of 82 mm or, when the illustration demands it, to a width of 176 mm. All illustrations should have a label pasted on the back bearing the figure number, the title of the paper, the author’s name and an arrow indicating the top of the figure. Avoid writing directly on the back of prints. Do not mount illustrations.

Photographs
Supply halftone illustrations (photographs) as sharp, glossy, black-and-white prints, preferably to a width of 82 mm. Photomicrographs must have internal scale markers. If photographs of people are used, their identities must be obscured or the picture must be accompanied by written permission to use the photograph. Photographs may be cropped or deleted at the discretion of the Editors.

Legends for illustrations
All illustrations must have legends. These should be typed using double spacing, beginning on a separate page, each with an Arabic nubmeral corresponding to the illustration to which it refers. All abbreviations used in the illustration must be defined in the legend. Internal scales should be explained, and staining methods for photomicrographs identified. Keys to symbols should be given in the legend, and not on the figure itself.

Colour reproduction
The cost of colour reproduction will be borne by the author. An estimate will be provided before the illustration is processed.

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