Biodiversity and Conservation

Instructions to authors

Send three copies of the manuscript and illustrations to one of the Editors. It is assumed that the author will keep one copy. Submission of manuscript on disc is encouraged. These should be prepared using a standard word processing package. Three printed copies are to be supplied with the disc, these matching the contents of the disc exactly. Typing should be double-spaced on one side of the paper only with wide margins throughout. Low quality dot-matrix printers should not be used. Enclose a cover letter and permissions to reproduce previously published material or to use illustrations that identify individuals; and if appropriate, to confirm that ethical guidelines and any legal requirements of the country in which the work was done have been adhered to.

Information on the transfer of copyright will be sent to authors on acceptance of their manuscript for publication. The transfer of copyright from author(s) to publisher must be stated in writing before any manuscript can be published.

The manuscript must be written in clear and concise English and should in general comprise: (a) Title page; (b) Summary; (c) Keywords; (d) Introduction; (e) Methods; (f) Results; (g) Discussion; (h) Acknowledge-ments, if any; (i) References. Where appropriate Results and Discussion may be combined. Illustrations and tables should be selected to illustrate points that cannot easily be described in the text.

Review process
If an Editor determines that the subject matter falls within the scope of the Journal he sends it to a Member of the Editorial Board for review by two referees. The Editor decides whether and in what form to accept a paper. Decisions of the Editors are final. The Editors-in-Chief may accept brief comments on a paper which has been published recently in the Journal. Such comments may contain small amounts of supporting data; further illuminate a paper; or take issue with some aspect of a paper.

The manuscript
Title page
The following information should be provided: (1) a concise and informative title, (2) a running title (maximum of 50 characters), (3) names of author(s), one given name may be in full; an asterisk should indicate the author responsible for correspondence, (4) name and address of the institution(s) where the work was done, (5) disclaimers, (6) full mailing address, tdephone and fax numbers of the corresponding author.

Summary and keywords
The summary should be comprehensible without reference to the text and not exceed 200 words. The main findings and new and important aspects of the study should be emphasized. Up to five keywords or phrases may be submitted for indexing purposes.

The Introduction should state the purpose of the paper. It should not review the subject extensively. Methods should be described in detail sufficient to enable the work to be repeated, and suppliers of materials and equipment given, if necessary. Results should be presented in logical sequence, with tables and illustrations as appropriate. Replications of observations and their statistical significance should be indicated. The data presented in tables and illustrations should not be repeated in the text. The Discussion section should emphasize the implications of the findings, their limitations, and relevance to other studies; it should not be a recapitulation of the Results.

The Harvard System is used. References in the text should be quoted in the following manner for single, two and more than two authors respectively: Koday (1935), Beethoven and Mozart (1803), Vivaldi et al. (1704). Multiple papers referred to together in the text should be given in shronological order. The references should be listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. The journal titles should be abbreviated to conform to the style of Index Medicus. The layout should be as follows:
for journals ...
O'Dowd, D.J. (1982) Pearl bodies as ant food: an ecological road for some leaf emergences of tropical plants. Biotropica 14, 40-9.

for books ...
Holldobler, B. and Wilson, E.O. (1990) The Ants. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
for chapters in books ...
Nepstad, D., UhI, C. and Adilson serrao, E. (1990)
Surmounting barriers to forest regeneration in abandoned highly degraded pastures: a case study from Paragominas, Para, Brazil. In Alternatives to Deforestation: steps towards sustainable use of the Amazon rainforest (A.B. Anderson, ed.) pp.215-29. Columbia: Columbia University Press.

Type each table on a separate sheet, number them consecutively and provide them with a brief title. Tables should be comprehensive without reference to the text but repetition of methods that have been described in the text aree not necessary. Place explanatory material in footnotes. When results are expressed as percentages, state the absolute value(s) that correspond to 100%. Identify statistical measure of variation.

Figures should be used to aid the clarity of the paper. Line drawings (not larger than 210 x 140 mm) should be presented as (1) India ink drawings on tracing paper or white card, (2) glossy photographs or (3) high-quaiity laser printed computer outputs. Photographs should be well-contrasted gloss prints. photomicrographs must have internal scale markers and symbols, arrows or letters should contrast with the background. Where photographs of gel, autoradiograms etc. have been processed to enhance their quality, this should be stated. Colour illustrations should be supplied as colour prints groups into plates; costs of colour printing will be charged to the author. Three lettered copies of each line drawing and photographs must be supplied. In addition one top set of drawings and one lettered set of prints should be provided for use by the printers. Type legends for illustrations on a separate page. When symbols, arrows, numbers, or letters are used to identify parts of the illustrations, identify and explain each one clearly in the legend. Explain internal scale and identify method of staining in photomicrographs. Nucleotide or amino acid sequences should be submitted for direct photographic reproduction. Such sequence data must be submitted to GenBank or EMBL (for Information contact GcnB ank, Mail Stop K7 10, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamose, NM 87545, USA or EMBL Data Library, Meyerhoftstrasse 1, 6900 Heidelberg, Germany).

Use the recommended SI uinits. The correct names of organisms conforming with the international rules of nomenclature must be used. Descriptions of new taxa should not be submitted unless a specimen has been deposited in a recognized collection and it is designated as a type strain in the paper. Biodiversity and Conservation uses the same conventions for the genetics nomenclature of bacteria, viruses, transposable elements, plasmids and restriction enzymes as the American Society for Microbiology journals.

Readers are invited to comment with observations, opinions and corrections for publication in letter format. Such correspondence intended for publication should not exceed three double-spaced, typed pages, with a maximum of ten references. Selection rights are reserved.

Book reviews
Books, monographs and reports submitted for review should be mailed to one of the Editors-in-Chief. Acknowledgements will appear in the journal. Selection rights are reserved.

Proofs will be sent to the corresponding author. The proofs must be corrected within three days of receipt and returned to the publisher.

Authors will be given the opportunity to order offprints when returning the proofs

Submission of a paper to Biodiversity and Conservation will be taken to imply that it presents original unpublished work, not under consideration for publication elsewhere. By submitting a manuscript, the authors agree that the copyright for their article is transferred to the Publisher if and when the article is accepted for publication The copyright covers the exclusive rights to reproduce and distribute the article, including reprints, photographic reproduction, microfilm or any other reproduction of similar nature and translations. Permission to publish illustrations must be obtained by the author before submission and any acknowledgements should be included in the captions.

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